Anatomy of Eye

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anatomybigRetina – A delicate, multilayered, light-sensitive membrane lining the inner eyeball and connected by the optic nerve to the brain.
Cornea – The transparent convex anterior portion of the outer fibrous coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and the pupil and is continuous with the sclera(white part of the eye). Sclera is a tough cover that protects the eyeball.
Iris – The pigmented, round, contractile membrane of the eye, suspended between the cornea and lens and perforated by the pupil. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye.
Macula – The small sensitive area of the retina that gives central vision; contains the fovea. This foveal area is covered with a yellow pigment called the macula lutea.
Optic Nerve – The axons of the ganglion cells make up the optic nerve. The optic nerve connects the retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus which is in the middle of the brain. This is the first connection made by the visual system in the brain.
Vitreous Humor – The clear gel filling the inside of the eye
The Pupil – The opening at the center of the iris. The iris adjusts the size of the pupil and controls the amount of light that can enter the eye
Lens – The lens is the clear part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. The lens helps to focus on both far and near objects so that they are perceived clearly and sharply.
How it works ?
We have an outer transparent cornea, through which light enters the pupil, the lens, the vitreous and is focused on the retina. The retina has the receptors called rods, which are sensitive to dim light and cones, which are sensitive to bright light and to colours. When the light strikes these receptors, they get activated. That generates electro-chemical signals .These are conducted via the optic nerve, to the brain . The brain has a special area called the visual cortex, which analyses these signals. It has connections with other areas of the brain, thus we can interpret what we see!